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STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION OF THE DETERMINANTS OF ENROLMENT IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION PROGRAMME IN COLLEGES OF EDUCATION IN KWARA STATE NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out to investigate student‘s perception of the determinants of enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study used survey research design. The population of the study consists of one thousand one hundred and ninety eight (1198) from where Three hundred (300) respondents were randomly selected in the three state colleges of education in Kwara State. Four specific objectives, four research questions and four hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The data collected was analyzed using frequency counts and percentages on bio-data of the respondents, while mean scores and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. The decision rule was that a benchmark of 2.5 served as a criterion for agree response. Person‘s product Moment correlation (PPMC) statistics was used to test the null hypotheses of the study at 0.05 level of significance. The findings showed that students‘ personal interest is related to enrolment into agricultural education program. Student‘s enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education is as a result of family status, peer group influence students‘ enrolment in agricultural education programme; Gender affects students‘ enrolment in colleges of education in Kwara state as females consider agriculture to be a male subject. In conclusion students should be properly guided by their parents, and school guidance and counseling unit to avoid wrong enrolment. Enlightenment campaign should be carried out to encourage male and female students to enroll in agriculture in order to help the government diversify our economy from oil to agriculture.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION                                                                                                                     iii

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                                   iv

DEDICATION                                                                                                                          v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                                       vi

ABSTRACT                                                                                                                            vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                                       viii

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                                    x

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1                 Background to the Study                                                                                         1

1.2                 Statement of the Problem                                                                                        3

1.3                 Objectives of the Study                                                                                           5

1.4                 Research Questions                                                                                                  5

1.5                 Research Hypotheses                                                                                               6

1.6                 Significance of the Study                                                                                         6

1.7                 Basic Assumptions of the Study                                                                              7

1.8                 Delimitation of the Study                                                                                        7

1.9                  Operational Definition of Terms                                                                              8

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1                  Theoretical Frame Work                                                                                          9

2.2                 Concept of Career enrollment                                                                                11

2.3                 Determinants of students' perception of entry into an academic programme        13

2.3.1             Personal Interest                                                                                                     14

2.3.2             Parental or Family Role                                                                                         15

2.3.3              Teachers' Role                                                                                                        19

2.3.4             Students-Students Interaction or Role Peer Group                                               21

2.3.5             Role of Gender                                                                                                       22

2.3.6             Societal Attitudes                                                                                                   23

2.3.7              Personality Trait                                                                                                     25

2.3.8             Employment Opportunities                                                                                    26

2.3.9              Prestige:                                                                                                                 26

2.4                  Agricultural Education Programme in Colleges of Education                              28

2.5                 Factors Influencing Student Enrolment                                                                 30

2.6                 Review of Empirical Studies                                                                                 30

2.7                 Summary of Reviewed Literature                                                                          35

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1                  Research Design                                                                                                    36

3.2                 Population of the Study                                                                                         36

3.3                  Sample Size and Sampling Procedure                                                                   37

3.4              Instrument for Data Collection                                                                             37

3.4.1             Validity of the Instrument                                                                                     38

3.4.2             Pilot Study                                                                                                             38

3.4.3             Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                  38

3.5                 Procedure for Data Collection                                                                               39

3.6                 Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                                  39

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA

4.1                 Analyses of Data used for Answering Research Questions                                   40

4.2                 Test of Null Hypotheses                                                                                        43

4.3                  Summary of the Major Findings                                                                            45

4.4                  Discussion of the Major Findings                                                                          45

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1                  Summary                                                                                                                47

5.2                 Contribution to Knowledge                                                                                   48

5.3                  Conclusion                                                                                                             48

5.4                 Recommendations                                                                                                  49

5.5                 Suggestion for Further Study                                                                                 49

REFERENCES                                                                                                                        50

APPENDICES                                                                                                                        55

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

      1.1       Background to the Study

Determinants are referred to as factors or variables that help individuals or students in enrolment and academic decision- making process. Many factors determine whether students are motivated or not to be enrolled or not into an academic programme of tertiary institutions of learning. It is pertinent to note that no single theoretical interpretation of motivation explains all aspects of student‘s motivation or lack of motivation Holland (2012). Different theoretical interpretations do however shed light on why some students in a given learning situation are more likely motivated to enroll and learn some course than others. Consequently, each of the theoretical interpretations can serve as the basis for argument as the students‘ determinants to enroll into a programme of tertiary institution of learning.

Bowen (1984) identifies the some determinants that influence students choice and enrolment to include personal interest, family status, peer group, (student- student interaction), societal attitudes and subject combinations. Bowen (1984) see enrollment into a give programme of learning as an official process of entry where an individual is enlisted as a member of a class in a particular school or academic programme. This is guided by someone‘s‘ career choice and interest of that programme Holland (2012). Holland (2012) further emphasized that a career is a sequence of role or position occupied by a person throughout his or her life times. It is the totality of work done including leisure and educational pursuits which may encompass a number of occupations, vocation or job one engages in during his or her working life. According to Julie (2004), choice of career could be defined as selecting carefully between alternatives. Choice of career is also an occupational decision making. Choice of career is very important in the life of any human being, especially among the secondary school leavers. This is because choice of career is geared towards specialization in the Sciences or Arts (Julie, 2004). Choice of career can be referred to as the number of occupations, jobs and positions occupied throughout a person‘s working life in a specific area developed over a period of time with the aim of reaching its apex after making invaluable contributions to the development of that chosen area at various positions (Okeke, 2003). Career decision determines to a very large extent the entire life style of an individual, including social status, value system, income, and leisure time activities, choice of friends, mental or physical health, and etcetera. It determines how satisfied or frustrated an individual will be in life.  Career is more than a job; it is a way of life especially when one considers an individual‘s personal characteristics such as desires, interest, needs, goals, abilities, social and physical condition of society (Okeke, 2003).

According to Kerka (2000), multiple factors such as interest, peer group, family, school environment, educational attainment level, sex (gender) as well as individual cultural background are determinants that influenced students‘ enrollment. These determinants are the desire of someone to accomplish a given task which can decisively affects the nature or outcome of something (Encarta dictionary, 2009). Bandura, Brbarnelli, Caprara and Pastorelli, (2001) opined that enrollment lived in the personal aptitudes social contacts and educational attainment of a person. Hewitt (2010) stated that most people are influenced by their parents while others follow their passion regardless how little it will pay while others are on what a career gives as income. Student perception of being suitable for particular jobs has also been found to be influence  by ethnic back ground, years in school, level of achievement, choice of science subjects, attitudes and differences in job characteristics (Mcquaid and Bond, 2003). Enrolment can be referred to as a list of people registered for or enrolled in something based on interest or desire (Encarta dictionary, 2009). Enrolment may be low or high in a given school because some student‘s preferred conventional courses to technical/vocational courses due to lack of interest, enthusiasm, poor funding and inadequate facilities (Rena, 2007).

Colleges of Education (COE) are institutions that offer post-secondary Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) training programs. The NCE is also the qualification required for teaching in junior secondary schools and technical colleges. Colleges of Education used to train teachers for junior secondary school, but now they also train primary teachers. The NCE has become the minimum qualification for primary school teachers. Some of these colleges also offer NCE pre-primary courses required for teaching in preprimary level of education. Kwale (2000) states that education cannot play its man power development role effectively unless the young generation make accurate choice of career entry into various fields of study which will lead them to make choice of career that is best suitable for them. Information appears to be key word in career guidance and development. This is because without information about jobs, their requirements, prospective worker may not know which jobs exist and what criteria are required for entry into a programme for such jobs. It also helps individual to know some other thing about him or herself, a knowledge which helps him or her to realize his vocation potentials which helps an individual to adapt and adjust his or her aspiration level. It is against this background that this study was set forth to establish the students‘ perception of the determinants  of enrollment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in Kwara State, Nigeria.

      1.2        Statement of the Problem

The underlying reason why agricultural education programme is seen as a occupation for suffering is because of the use crude implements for tilling the land and long term returns. Those who found themselves studying agricultural education programmes are usually found as accidental individuals or forced into the programme with only few willingly found into the programme (Abass, 2004). This may be due to lack of interest, familial influence, peer group, gender discrimination or other reasons that might have made the choice of Agricultural Education difficult (Abdullah, Bakar and Othman, 2009). Furthermore, the assumption that enrolling into agricultural education may make someone permanently a farmer has also contributed to low enrolment of students (Abdullahi et al, 2009). Record and observation have shown that teachers who teach agricultural science in secondary schools are grossly scarce and those on ground lack the expertise to instill the right values of agriculture into the prospective students.

In Nigeria today however, with the prosperity of opportunities in agriculture for gainful employment and currently faced with major problems of unemployment, agriculture therefore has become a target to solving this unemployment saga both by government and private organizations. Many agricultural imitative like loan facilities, subsidized inputs, promoting organized farmer organizations among others were being re-introduced.

However, it is not certain if these efforts could encourage students‘ enrollment into agricultural education programmes coupled with the fact that most secondary school leavers lack the productive skills as designed in the curriculum. As a result of this, these groups of students who are mostly youths full of energy roam the streets of our cities without doing anything meaningful. Many farms as observed by the researcher in the study area more particularly at the secondary schools who are the prospective students of colleges of education are not well developed and utilized to develop appropriate skills and interest in students. It is against this backdrop that the researcher decided to establish the student‘s perception of the determinants of enrolment in agricultural education programme in Colleges of Education in Kwara State.

 

 

      1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study was to identify student‘s perception of the determinants of enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in

Kwara state, Nigeria.

The specific objectives were to:

  1. ascertain the influence of students‘ personal interest on enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in Kwara State.
  2. ascertain the influence of family on student‘s enrolment in agricultural education

programme in colleges of education in Kwara State.

  1. assess the influence of peer groups on student‘s enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in Kwara State; and
  2. examine the influence of gender on student‘s enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in Kwara State.

      1.4       Research Questions

The study sought to answer the following questions

  1. What is the influence of students‘ personal interests on enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in Kwara State?
  2. What is the family influence on student‘s enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in Kwara State?
  3. To what extent does the peer group influence student‘s enrolment in agricultural education in colleges of education programme in Kwara State?
  4. To what extent does gender influence students enrollment in Agricultural

Education programme in Colleges of Education Kwara State?

 

      1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.

  1. Students‘ interest does not significantly influence their enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education Kwara State.
  2. There is no significant influence of family on student‘s enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of Education in Kwara State.
  3. There is no significant influence of peer groups on student‘s enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education Kwara State.
  4. Gender does not significantly influence student‘s enrolment in agricultural education

programme in colleges of education Kwara State.

      1.6       Significance of the Study

This research would be beneficial to educational curriculum planners, ministry of education, ministry of agriculture, teachers of agricultural education, students and communities. It expected that this research work would serve as guide to curriculum planners in designing and reviewing agricultural education programme that will encourage and foster students‘ enrollment to studying agric education in higher institutions. This research work will be made available to the curriculum planners in National and state libraries. It enables the ministry of education to know the problem of low enrollment of students in agricultural education programme in colleges with the aim of formulating policies that will gear towards motivating students to choose agric education as a carrier. The research work will be accessible to ministry of education via workshops, seminar, symposium, and other public lectures.  The findings of this work will also help teachers to understand that for students to enroll in agric education class they needed both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations hence, teachers handles the students well and appreciate and make corrections where they are wrong. This dissertation will be made available to teachers through their respective institutional libraries. The findings of this research work would also benefit students in their research studies and will accessible to them the school libraries. The community also stands a better chance to benefit from the study because it will make them appreciate the importance of agric education for food production and encourage their children to enroll in agricultural education programme in colleges

      1.7       Basic Assumptions of the Study

The following basic assumptions were made that:

  1. Enrolment in agricultural education programme is influence student‘s personal

interest.

  1. Family influences students‘ enrolment in agricultural education programme.
  2. The peer group influences students‘ enrolment in agricultural education programme.
  3. Gender influences students‘ enrolment in agricultural education programme.

      1.8       Delimitation of the Study

This research was delimited to the determinants of students‘ enrolment in agricultural education programme in colleges of education in Kwara state. The research work was also delimited to three (3) state colleges of education in Ilorin, Oro, and Lafiagi in Kwara state.

It was also delimited to students of NCE three (3) in the Department of Agricultural Education. The research was delimited to determinants of students‘ enrolment because they are the indices that control students‘ decision whether or not to read agricultural education. It was also delimited to the available three (3) colleges of education in Kwara state that offer or run agricultural education programme among the monotechnics.  It was also delimited to students because they are the one that enroll and study the programme hence; they also stand a better chance to opine what determined their choice of agricultural education as a course of study.

      1.9       Operational Definition of Terms

Determinants: Referred to as factors that help individuals or students in academic decisionmaking process.

Enrolment: Referred to as a list of people registered for enrolled in something based on interest or desire.

Agricultural Education: Is a discipline, which offers opportunity to those in education as relates to agriculture.

Influence: Referred to power exerted over other often through high position strength of intellect force of character or degree of accomplishment

Colleges of Education: Are institutions that offer post-secondary Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) training programme.

 

Attached Files

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES (SMES) IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF SOME SELECTED SMES IN KADUNA METROPOLIS

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