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Production Of Biodegradable Polymer Drilling Mud, Using Pectin Extracted From Orange Peels.

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of Pectin derived from Orange peel as a Drilling Excipient

The objective of the present work is extraction of pectin from waste of orange fruit peel and further characterization for useful alternative synthetic drilling fluid. The production of biodegradable polymer based drilling mud using pectin extracted from orange peels was carried out. The extraction was carried out using conventional method (water-hot acid), after the extraction the pectin was pre-gelatinized using calcium water. The pre-gelatinized pectin polymer was used to prepare water-based drilling. Filter loss method was used to determine the filtration properties of the mud at 250C and 2000C temperatures and 0.1g/mol Pectin Polymer Mud was tagged PPM and compared to the filtration behavior of Chemically Modified Mud which was prepared using hydroxyl propyl was tagged CMM in this work. The results from the experiment showed that the new biodegradable mud Pectin Polymer Mud (PPM) has better filtration control behavior when compared to the chemically modified mud CMM. Also from the study, it was shown the highest sorptivity value of 21.25 was obtained with PMM, while the highest diffusivity value of 0.424 was obtained with CMM. Therefore, this clearly show that the newly prepared biodegradable polymer drilling mud can adequately serve as an alternative to the commercial products.

 

Key words: Biodegradable Polymer Mud, Pectin, Filtration Behavior, water-hot acid.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

Contents

CERTIFICATION.. ii

DEDICATION.. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. iv

ABSTRACT. v

TABLE OF CONTENT. vi

CHAPTER ONE. 10

INTRODUCTION.. 10

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY: 10

1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT. 4

1.3 Objective of Study. 5

1.4.   JUSTIFICATION.. 5

1.5.     Scope of study. 6

CHAPTER TWO.. 7

LITERATURE REVIEW... 7

2.0 PECTIN.. 7

2.1 Sources and production. 8

2.2 Pectin Isolation. 9

2.3 Properties of Pectin. 12

2.4 Chemistry of pectin. 16

2.4.1 Pectin Modification. 17

2.5 Biopolymers in drilling fluids. 19

2.6 Applications of pectin. 24

2.7 DRILLING FLUIDS. 26

2.7.1 Water based mud (WBM) 27

2.7.2 Oil based mud (OBM) 28

2.7.3 Air drilling fluids. 28

CHAPTER THREE. 29

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS. 29

3.1 MATERIALS. 29

3.1.1. Equipment used. 29

3.2. METHODS. 30

3.2.1. peeling of the oranges. 30

3.2.2. cutting of the orange peel 30

3.2.3 mixing the chopped pith with lemon. 31

3.2.4.  adding of water 31

3.2.5.  boil the mixture. 32

CHAPTER FOUR.. 36

Result and discussion. 36

Figure 4.1: Plot of Fluid loss against Square root of time for the muds at room temperature 250C. 37

Table 4.2: Result from experiment run for the filtration properties of the muds at high temperature, 2000C.. 39

Figure 4.3: Plot of Fluid Loss against Square Root of Time for the muds at high temperature. 40

Figure 4.4: Plot of Rate of Filtration against Square Root of Time for the muds at high temperature, 200oC. 41

Sorptivity and diffisivity. 42

CHAPTER FIVE. 44

Conclusion. 44

RECOMMENDATIONS. 44

REFERNCES. 46

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY:

Drilling fluids (or muds) have a very important role in drilling processes, as they have to possess a suitable viscosity in order to suspend and transport the cuttings efficiently. The role of polymers in drilling muds is as thickeners, providing viscosity to those muds (Gao et al., 2015).

The general functions of drilling fluids in a drilling process is carrying cuttings from the hole, cool and clean the drill bit, reduce friction between the drill pipe and wellbore, maintaining the stability of the wellbore, form a thin, low-permeable filter cake and do not damage the product and the environment. In the process of drilling, each of these functions has different relevance at specific stages of the process (Kok MV, Alikaya T 2003).

The research and development of these fluids have been centered on additives and systems for wellbore stability, hole cleaning, lubricity and environmental safety (Kok MV, Alikaya T 2003).

There is a large number of different processes in drilling, like horizontal and vertical drilling, inclined drilling and sub-sea and deep-sea drilling. To drill in these different conditions, the fluid (mud) chosen has to be designed regarding the necessities of each well (Eughele, U. et al., 2010).

Pectin “congealed, curdled" is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants. It was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot. It is produced commercially as a white to light brown powder, mainly extracted from citrus fruits, and is used in food as a gelling agent, particularly in jams and jellies. It is also used in dessert fillings, medicines, sweets, as a stabilizer in fruit juices and milk drinks, and as a source of dietary fiber. (Braconnot, Henri 1992)

Pectin is a naturally occurring substance (a polysaccharide) found in berries, apples and other fruit.  When heated together with sugar, it causes a thickening that is characteristic of jams and jellies.
(http://www.pickyourown.org/pectin.htm#ZvSJIw7MZO3u4Joi.99)

Pectin is a high-molecular-weight carbohydrate polymer which is present in virtually all plants where it contributes to the cell structure. The term pectin covers a number of polymers which vary according to their molecular weight, chemical configuration, and content of neutral sugars, and different plant types produce pectin with different functional properties. The word ‘pectin’ comes from the Greek word pektos which means firm and hard, reflecting pectin's ability to form gels.

The gelling properties of pectin have been known for centuries, but the isolation of commercial pectin only started at the beginning of the twentieth century. (L. Flutto, 2003)

Pectin is a gelatin-like carbohydrate in the cell walls of plants. Pectin acts like a gel, sometimes referred to as a “fragile solid” in cooking. Pectin is semi soluble in liquids, which means that it is able to take up some liquid. This is especially important in cooking fruits and vegetables because it allows them to soften when cooked.

Pectin is extracted from apples and citrus fruits. Soluble pectin is capable of forming a gel once the correct concentrations of acid and sugar are reached. This is helpful to thicken syrups, such as those used to make jams and jellies.

Pectin plays an important role in food processing as food additives and as a source

of dietary fiber. Pectin gels are very important in creating or modifying the texture of jams, jellies, confectionary and in low fat dairy products.

The main use for pectin (vegetable agglutinate) is as a gelling agent, thickening agent and stabilizer in food. The classical application is giving the jelly-like consistency to jams or marmalades, which would otherwise be sweet juices. Pectin also reduces syneresis in jams and marmalades and increases the gel strength of low-calorie jams. For household use, pectin is an ingredient in gelling sugar (also known as "jam sugar") where it is diluted to the right concentration with sugar and some citric acid to adjust pH. (H.-D. Belitz, el al, 2004).

Also, in the oil industry, pectin is used in large quantities to thicken drilling mud. These fluids serve to carry the solids cut by the drilling bit back to the surface. Pectin provides great "low end" rheology. When the circulation stops, the solids still remain suspended in the drilling fluid. The widespread use of horizontal drilling and the demand for good control of drilled solids has led to its expanded use. It has also been added to concrete poured underwater, to increase its viscosity and prevent washout.

 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT

The high cost of production of some drilling mud like oil based drilling mud containing expensive materials is a problem and causes environmental pollution. Therefore, in this work, there was production of water based drilling mud containing materials (water, orange peels etc) which are locally available and cheap. The problem of producing an environmental pollutant drilling mud was solved in this project. The drilling mud produced here contains citrus peels, (natural biopolymer) which are environmentally friendly. The drilling mud produced is both biodegradable and non-toxic. The problem of environmental pollution which arises from waste (orange peels) was solved in this project, because pectin (biopolymer) was extracted from orange peels. Management of this waste (orange peels) reduces the problems caused by the waste which includes polluting the environment, blocking the water ways (gutters), which leads to over-flooding in the environment.

 

 

1.3 Objective of Study

 The main objective of this project is to produce a water based drilling mud using pectin (biopolymer) extracted from orange peels.

 Specific Objectives are:

  1. To Extract pectin from orange peels by conventional methods.
  2. To modify and pre-gelatinize the pectin as drilling mud additive.

III.      To prepare water-based drilling mud using the modified pectin.

Iv.     To determine the filtration properties of the drilling mud.

  1. To advance and project the use of local content drilling fluid additives.

VI     To investigate how the viscosity of pectin can be increase to meet up the      viscosity of standard viscosifier like CMC, PACR, etc

 

 

1.4.  JUSTIFICATION

Some additives and materials used in production of drilling fluids are considered a threat to the environment (Winson si, 2012). Hence there is urgent need to use additives and materials that is environmentally friendly. The presence of water and pectin as the base fluid and additives in the drilling mud makes the mud to be non-toxic, environmentally friendly and biodegradable. The material such as orange peels from which the pectin was extracted from is cheap and available and also the base fluid which is water is locally available and cheap, resulting in financial savings hence the materials were locally available and cheap. The conventional method used in the extraction of pectin is feasible, a high amount of the pectin was obtained using the method and also necessary equipments used in the extraction of pectin and production of the drilling mud were all readily available.

1.5.    Scope of study

The limit of this work includes

  1. Extraction of pectin from citrus peels using conventional method.
  2. Modification and pre-gelatinization of pectin using calcium water.

III. Preparation of Water- based drilling mud using the modified pectin.

Attached Files

CAUSES, MANAGEMENT SYMPTOMS, TREATMENT, PREVENTION OF PROSTATE CANCER
AUTOMATION OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIES IN IMO STATE, CHALLENGES AND GAINS. (A Case Study of Federal Polytechnic Nekede Owerri Library)

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