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This study is designed to examine and determine the effect of the activities of peer groups on the academic performance of students in some selected secondary schools in Esan North East Local Government Area, Edo State.

The research questions used were:

  1. How could anti-academic activities hinder academic performance among peer groups in secondary school?
  1. How inadequate school materials could encourage children to be indolent at work.
  • How a bad school tone can stymie academic achievement in school

The research instrument used included a questionnaire and participant observation. The sample percentage and tabulation were used for the data analysis. The recommendations were proffered to alleviate the identified problems.

Table of Content

Chapter One


Statement of problems

The goal of the research

The significance of the study


The scope of the research

Definition of terms

Chapter Two

A literature review

Chapter Three

Research design


Sample selection description

Research instrument

Pilot study

Validation of the instrument

Administration of instruments

The method of data analysis

Interview with students.

Chapter Four

Data Presentation and Analysis

Chapter Five






Chapter One


Peer groups can simply be said to be people of the same age and ability; that is, people who are knitted together by a feeling derived from a common concern as seekers of what is desirable for the group. The peer group is the child's own friends, and equal members of the group often have common characteristics of interest. The peer group's interests are short-lived and temporary (Ezewu 2002).

Furthermore, children's peer group members change as they progress through developmental stages and can belong to multiple peer groups at the same time (Ezewu, 2002).In some cases, members' roles are less defined and they change frequently. In some, it may not be clear who is a member and who is not. In an in-group, the child holds a certain position, and he is expected to think and behave in a certain way. The peer group sets out certain standards for the group, and they also have norms and values that they follow.

Peer group influences are more pronounced and noted in secondary schools than in primary schools, partly because some of the children go away from home and stay in boarding schools where parental supervision and contact is very limited. The influence of peer groups on a child is great both in and out of school because there is a tendency for members to be comfortable with the group norms and values. Sometimes, peer group influence may lead to aggressive behavior such as rioting in school.

Peer group influence also prompts students to form cliques with nicknames such as Terror, Shark, Snake, Tempo, Blue Queen, Black Angel, etc. Students are always anxious to initiate their peers, whether good or bad. They would want to go to the church or mosque due to their peer influences. They may also join different clubs like Girl Guides, Boys Scouts, Brigade, Red Cross, Savan, etc. (Owuamanam, 2001). The peer group has its own "acceptance" which they have to consider before a child can be accepted or rejected from a group. Some of these characteristics that are likely to make a child accepted into a group are friendship, sociability, and introversion. Much can also be said about what a particular group values in its members (Piaget, 1998).

The formation of peer groups may occur when frustration sets in as a result of conflict with family members, adults, and societal norms. Effects are usually made to compensate for rejection and used profitably. Through the formation of a peer group, the child will want to gain freedom from home in order to be loyal to the group.

In another way, Adeola et al. (2002) say, "the formation of peer groups may occur from each extensive interaction with others; thereby, relationships are initiated and, by these contacts, important attitudes and values are formed." Attitudes may influence the child’s academic performance either positively or negatively. The negative aspects which could be detrimental to students' academic work are the cases of group behavior such as truancy, persistent lateness to school, juvenile delinquency, stealing, absenteeism from school, disobedience, laziness, disregarding school rules, and regulations etc.

On the other hand, the influence could be geared towards positive aspects of students' academic performance. For instance, the students could be influenced socially, psychologically, intellectually etc. and all these boost academic performance, e.g., by forming reading groups, going to the library, being anxious to join others in answering questions in the classroom, and making friends with brilliant students, especially in the area of mathematics, English language, social studies etc.

Also, there are some important functions that the peer group plays that greatly influence the academic performance of students. They are as follows:

  1. They provide the peer group with a considerable degree of emotional security, which helps in the intellectual development of the child.
  1. The peer group provides the students with a wide variety of experiences that can boost their academic performance.
  1. They also provide the opportunity for the development of loyalties that go beyond the immediate family, e.g., political and social loyalties, which are important for future adjustment.
  1. They provide a wide number of males that will be helpful in the development of identity diffusion.
  1. The peer group facilitates the pre-adolescent transition from family to peer orientation.
  1. They provide opportunities for interpersonal relationships.

The peer group provides the standard of teaching and behavior to be pursued by its members, and they establish the attitudes, opinions, and ideas that they are to adopt. It is through these peer groups that cultures are established, which will provide variations in standards of education and so on. While in their respective groups, the individual numbers are prepared for the performance of specific tasks such as leadership roles, the spirit of active participation, submissiveness, etc. In this way, the children learn to lead and follow. These are vital requirements for effective citizenship.

Statement of the Problem

The concern of the peer group on the academic performance of students in selected secondary schools Efforts would be concentrated on the following:

  1. Children's interaction with their peers
  1. Stages of the formation of peer groups
  • Student's academic performance is influenced by their peer group.
  1. The implication of a peer group on individual teachers, educational administration, policymakers, etc.

The Study's Goal

The purpose of the study is to investigate the extent to which peer groups contribute to the academic performance of a child. The research will also find out whether peer group influence contributes to the academic growth of its members. Furthermore, the investigation would also find out the positive and negative behavioral aspects of the peer group on the academic performance of students.

The Significance of the Study

The study will help in learning more about the peer group and its stages. It will help in finding out the peer group's influence on pre-adolescents and their implications.

The work will help in determining the influence of the peer group on the academic performance of students. The research will help in finding solutions to the problems caused by the poser group influence. It will also help in relating the peer group of males and females together in terms of the relationship.

The project will also help to find out the bad and good aspects of peer groups.

The scope of the study

The study was limited to five selected secondary schools, namely:

  1. Okpuje Secondary School,
  1. Uwalor Secondary School
  • Obedu Secondary School
  1. Our Lady of Lord’s Grammar School and
  1. Ebonyi Secondary School in Esan, North East Local Government Area of Edo State.

Limitations of the Study

It is hard to carry out the research without some significant problems, such as the dearth of cash and enough resources.


In the study, the following terms were used:

Peer: To rank with someone of the same age group and bracket.

group: a collection of people or things that are in the same place or are linked in some way.

Influence: the power that something or somebody has to make something or somebody behave in a particular way.

Academic: something based on subjects that are taught to develop the mind rather than to provide practical skills.

Performance refers to how well or poorly something is done.

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