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IDENTIFYING THE FACTORS INFLUENCING THE ATTITUDE OF RADIOGRAPHERS TO THEIR PROFESSIONAL BODY

ABSTRACT

A professional association is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public. The roles of these professional associations have been variously defined. Activities and events organized by these organizations facilitate better interaction amongst members while at the same time providing opportunities for promoting and identifying common professional or industry interests. Association of Radiographers of Nigeria (ARN), the Professional Organisation representing Radiographers and Radiation Therapist in Nigeria, strives to uphold the professional, public and workplace interests of her members by encouraging the seeking and sharing of knowledge.

The Radiographers in Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTTH) Parklane, Enugu, National Orthopedic Hospital, Enugu (NOHE) and University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla stand tall in the practice of Radiography in Nigeria were understudied as to identify the factors that influence the attitude of radiographers to their professional body.

The findings of this research reveals that all the respondents are Nigerians (100%), Most of the respondents, 97%, have acquired at least B Sc degree in Radiography. Majority of the respondents, 76.1%, has voting right in the association meeting. The respondents 93.9% (31/33) registered with the professional body.

Handful of the respondents 27.3% attended update courses, workshop or special trainings organized by the association often. The reason for attending was given as to gain more knowledge and skill (71%) and some were mandated to attend (22.6%).

Most of the respondents did not know the law establishing the professional body since only 33.3% actually knows and can quote the decree.

Majority of the respondents, 66%, were of the opinion that the professional body has not done much for the profession. Thus more is needed to be done.

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

Table 1      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table 2      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table 3      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table 4      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table 5      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table 6      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table 7      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table 8      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Table 9      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

Fig I  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Fig II -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Fig III        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

Fig IV        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

 

 

APPENDIX

 

Appendix I                   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title Page    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        i

Certification Page -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ii

Approval Page     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iii

Dedication  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        iv

Acknowledgement         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        v

Abstract      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vi

List of Tables       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        vii

List of Figures      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        viii

Table of Content  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        ix

Appendix   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        x

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Introduction   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

1.2 Statement of Problem        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

1.3 Purpose of Study     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

1.4 Objectives of Study -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

1.5 Significance of Study         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

1.6 Scope of Study        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

CHAPTER TWO

Review of Related Literature   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.1 Theoretical Background    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.2 Causes of Apathy    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.3 Effects of Apathy    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.4 Ways of Preventing Apathy        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.5 Who is a Radiographer               -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.6 Qualifications of a Radiographer in Nigeria   -        -        -        -        -

2.7 Duties of a Radiographer  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.8 Types of Radiographers             -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.9 Risks in Radiography        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.10 Professional Association -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

2.11 Association of Radiographers of Nigeria     -        -        -        -        -

2.12 The Radiographers Registration Board of Nigeria -        -        -        -

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology

3.1 Research Method     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

3.2 Sample Size and Method of Sampling  -        -        -        -        -        -

3.3 Sources of Data       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

3.4 Description of Questionnaire      -        -        -        -        -        -        -

3.5 Data Collection        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Data Analysis -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

4.2 Data Presentation    -        -        -        -        -        --       -        -        -

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1 Discussion and Implication of Results           -        -        -        -        -

5.2 Summary of Findings        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

5.3 Conclusion     -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

5.4 Recommendations   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

5.5 Areas of Further Studies   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

5.6 Limitations of the Study    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1    INTRODUCTION.

A professional association (also called a professional body, professional organization, or professional society) is usually a nonprofit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public . Examples include Association of Pathologists of Nigeria (ASOPON), Nigerian Medical Association (NMA), Medical Laboratory Scientists of Nigeria (AMLSN), Nigeria Bar Association (NBA), Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT), Nigeria Society of Engineers (NSE), etc.

The roles of these professional associations have been variously defined: "A group of people in a learned occupation who are entrusted with maintaining control or oversight of the legitimate practice of the occupation;”1 also a body acting "to safeguard the public interest;"2 organizations which "represent the interest of the professional practitioners," and so "act to maintain their own privileged and powerful position as a controlling body"2. Activities and events organized by these organizations facilitate better interaction amongst members while at the same time providing opportunities for promoting and identifying common professional or industry interests. This, in turn, places the burden of enforcing a Profession ban upon these associations as well.

Though professional bodies often act to protect the public by maintaining and enforcing standards of training and ethics in their profession, they often also act like a cartel or a labour union (trade union) for the members of the profession, though this description is commonly rejected by some of the body concerned.

Trade unions laws in the UK and Nigeria defines trade union as: “… any combination whether temporary or permanent, the principal objectives of which its constitution are … the regulation of the relation between workmen and workmen or between masters and masters or the imposing of restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business and also the provision of benefits to members”3. From the definition, employers associations are also to be regarded as trade unions. Trade unions are the main power resource of working people.

The history of trade union in Nigeria started on the 19th August 1912 with the formation of southern Nigeria civil service union. The name was later changed to Nigerian civil service union after the amalgamation of the southern and northern protectorates of Nigeria. Thus, she serves as the first union characterized by wage employment that existed in Nigeria. The union was concerned with efficiency in the civil service and intensified nationalization of the service. This put her in a disadvantaged position since the she was not concerned with the hard core unionism. As a result other workers unions emanated from her. Later on, the unions were legalised with the enactment of the trade union ordinance in 1938 and its consequent execution on the 1st of April, 1939.  Ubeku, saw this as a milestone in the activities of the trade unions since it ensured that the trade unions were duly registered before they could engage in collective bargain with their employers. Besides, the ordinance eventually brought the workers unions closer to one another.

As a result, many central labour organizations were formed between 1942 – 1975. These unions proffered strategies for sustained trade unionism, promotion of workers welfare and general national development. This made the leaders to think of the need to have a centralized organization of the various trade unions especially in the struggle to rid the economy of the bad leadership and Nigerian Labour Congress (NLC) was formed in 1975. This became the strong backbone of the other unions. It coordinates the affairs of all these unions and these unions are deemed to be affiliated to the NLC. Though there were some specifications and guidelines in the procedure for such affiliation. The affiliated trade unions must make some reservations to the NLC from the monies collected from their members. It is the NLC that has in a long run intervened in the government face off with the skilled/professional workers in the country. Given the central organization of trade unions, any union which fails to pay its contribution is guilty of an offence and liable on conviction to a fine of twice the amount of the contribution.

Subsequently, there was proliferation of other unions according to profession occasioned by the regional government, bitter experiences of some of the members, political interference and poor foundation of the labour movement.

Professional association operates within industrial relation system where the employer and government are also actors. It is concerned with collective strength of the members. Thus it tries to replace the worker’s bargaining power at work with group power. Thus joining a Professional Association or Institution might just be a Launch Pad for a career.

As a result, Association of Radiographers of Nigeria (ARN), the Professional Organisation representing Radiographers and Radiation Therapist in Nigeria, was founded in May 1958 at a meeting of a handful of Radiographers working in the University College Hospital and Adeoyo General hospital both in Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria (in the then Western region) as an independent National Association. The ARN was originally concieved as a branch of the Society of Radiographers of the United Kingdom since almost all Radiographers in Nigeria then, trained in Britain and were members of the British Society.

The Association became a foundation member of the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists in 1961 and has continually played significant roles on the international scene. It was recognised as a professional organisation by the Federal Ministry of Health in 1962 and granted a "Learned Society" status by the Federal Ministry of Education in 1973.

The association strives to uphold the professional, public and workplace interests of her members by encouraging the seeking and sharing of knowledge. It also ensures representation in areas related to the practice of medical imaging, radiation therapy and public health policy formulation and implementation. Thus it is saddled with the responsibility of ensuring that radiography is practiced according to the prescribed ethics of the profession and enhance the image of Radiography profession in Nigeria and in the West African sub-region.

Therefore, for the effective management of the association avoiding incidence of conflict of interests, the association was formed and managed by Radiographers; led to the establishment of the Radiographers Registration Board of Nigeria (RRBN), a parastatal under the Federal Ministry of Health, was established by Laws of the Federation of Nigeria 1987. The Board is charged with overall objective of ensuring the availability and provision of quality Radiography services to Nigerians. Never the less, ARN is the professional association of all the Radiographers in Nigeria though that follows after due certification from the RRBN.

Conversely, there is perceived inactive participation of the members in the activities of the ARN ranging from non registration of some radiographers to poor attendance to the activities of the association. This adversely affects the aims, objectives and progressive existence of the association. Thus, with the words of Arnold J. Toynbee, apathy can be overcome by enthusiasm, and enthusiasm can only be aroused by two things: first, an ideal, with takes the imagination by storm, and second, a definite intelligible plan for carrying that ideal into practice; it is about time this ugly menace is fought with the aim of eliminating it among Radiographers.

This research, therefore, aims at identifying the factors influencing the attitude of Radiographers to their professional body (i.e. ARN). The result will be of immense help to the association in understanding the mind of their members and take proper measures to ensure increase in the participation of its members. Thus, it will help the association to ensure active participation of the Radiographers to national conferences, workshops and other activities of ARN.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The relationship between Radiographers in Nigeria and ARN is not as strong as it should and this is shown in the following ways:

  • There is little co-operation of some radiographers and their Professional body for effective practice in Nigeria4.
  • There is increase in the number of Radiographers who practice without license5.
  • ARN and RRBN are coercing Radiographers to live up to their various professional responsibilities.

 

1.3     PURPOSE OF STUDY

This study is aimed to identify the factors influencing the attitude of Radiographers to their Professional bodies (viz ARN, RRBN).

 

1.4     OBJECTIVES

  • To determine the number of radiographers who are registered with their professional bodies
  • To identify the reason (s) for the apathy noticed in some radiographers.
  • To identify the possible way (s) of ameliorating apathy of some radiographers to the professional bodies.
  • To assess the Radiographers knowledge of the decree establishing the professional body.
  • To assess the willingness of Radiographers to update their knowledge for effective practice.

 

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

  • To increase the awareness of radiographers on the importance of their professional body in effective practice.
  • It will highlight the importance of Radiographers attending conferences, scientific workshop and seminars.
  • To highlight the duties of Radiographers to the profession.

 

1.6     SCOPE OF STUDY

The research is to be carried out in the Tertiary Health providers in Enugu metropolis namely:

  • Enugu State University Teaching Hospital (ESUTTH) Parklane, Enugu
  • National Orthopedic Hospital, Enugu (NOHE)
  • University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla

 

 

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