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HAEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ADULT RABBIT BUCKS FED DIETS CONTAINING Dialium Guineense LEAF MEAL.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CERTIFICATION.. ii

DEDICATION.. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT. iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS. v

ABSTRACT. vii

CHAPTER ONE. 1

1.0         INTRODUCTION.. 1

1.1         Background of the study. 1

1.2         Objectives of the study. 2

1.3         Justification of the study. 2

CHAPTER TWO.. 4

2.0         LITERATURE REVIEW... 4

2.1         Origin of Dialium guineense. 4

2.2         Botanical description of Dialium guineense. 4

2.3         Ecology of Dialium guineense. 5

2.4         Distribution of Dialium guineense. 5

2.5         Composition of Dialium guineense. 6

2.6         Uses of Dialium guineense. 7

2.7         Antioxidant activity. 7

2.8         Antimicrobial activity. 8

2.9         Anti-hemorrhoidal activity. 9

2.10      Anti-hepatotoxic activity. 10

2.11      Rabbit production in Nigeria. 10

2.12      Utilization of forage in animal nutrition. 12

2.13      Factors affecting haematological parameters of farm animals. 12

2.13.1        Genetic Factors. 13

2.13.2        Non-Genetic Factors. 14

2.14      Haematological components and their functions. 17

2.15      Normal haematological values for rabbits. 19

CHAPTER THREE. 21

3.0         MATERIALS AND METHODS. 21

3.1         Location of experiment. 21

3.2         Experimental animals and their management. 21

3.3         Processing of test material (Daliumguineense leaves). 21

3.4         Experimental design and diet. 21

3.5         Haematological and serum biochemical evaluation. 22

3.6         Data analysis. 22

CHAPTER FOUR. 24

4.0         RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.. 24

4.1         Results. 24

4.2         Discussion. 27

CHAPTER FIVE. 30

5.0         Conclusion and Recommendations. 30

5.1         Conclusion. 30

5.2         Recommendations. 30

REFERENCES. 31


ABSTRACT

Assessment of blood characteristics of livestock species administered non-conventional feed materials is of paramount importance in determining the physiological status of the animals. A total of 18 New Zealand White (NZW) adult rabbit bucks were used in this experiment which lasted for four weeks; to evaluate their haematological and serum biochemical parameters. The experiment was carried out in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD) comprising three treatments; T1, T2 and T3, containing 0.0, 30.0 and 60.0 % Dialium guineense leaf meal, respectively.Packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, heterophil and platelet counts were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T2 rabbits, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV) significantly (p<0.05) decreased with increasing level of Dialium guineense leaf meal. Heterophil-lymphocyte (H/L) ratio was significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 rabbits. Serum total protein (TP), globulin, urea, urea-creatinine ratio and alanine transaminase (ALT) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T2 rabbits, while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in rabbits on T1 (control). This study demonstrates that Dialium guineense leaf meal can be utilized up to 30 % level in the diet of adult NZW rabbit bucks to improve their PCV, cellular immunity and serum globulin.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the study

            Studies on the utilization of non-synthetic materials, especially of plant origin, have continued to increase since the advocacy for non-synthetic drug use in animal production, occasioned by residual effects of synthetic drugs (Iwuji and Herbert, 2012a). Various plant seeds, leaves, roots and other parts are being explored for their possible benefits and replacement of the synthetic materials used in animal production, with a possibility of achieving the same or improved effect as with synthetic materials. These studies which involve different animal models are focusing on different aspects of animal production which include nutrition, health and physiology (Iwuji and Herbert, 2012b; Opara et al., 2012; Odoemelam et al., 2013). Numerous different plants have been well researched for their roles in the nutrition, health and physiological functions of various types of livestock. However, many are still scantly researched, while some remain untapped.

The plant, Daliumguineense, although widely known for its fruit (Icheku); has not been widely researched for use in animal production. Studies involving the plant have focused more on the various compositions of the plant and its medicinal and pharmacological uses(Gnansounouet al., 2014;Besong et al., 2016), but there is lack of information on its application in livestock production; especiallywith regards to nutrition, health and physiological functions of animals.Daliumguineense, also called velvet taramind is a leguminous plant which usually grows in the wild with its description widely documented (Besong et al., 2016). Considering the enormous potential benefits recorded for this plant, it becomes imperative to utilize it in animal production for possible benefits, especially in this era of organic farming.

The rabbit industry in Nigeria has been described as emergent or rudimentary (Iwuji et al., 2017a)and rabbits have been adjudged to have the potential to fill the niche in animal protein needs of developing countries like Nigeria (Iwuji et al., 2017b). Therefore, more research studies in rabbit production are of paramount importance in elevating the rabbit production industry in Nigeria. This study is then designed to evaluate the effect of Daliumguineense leaf meal on heamatological and serum biochemical characteristics of adult New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit bucks.

1.2     Objectives of the study

            The objectives of this study are;

  • To evaluate the haematological characteristics of adult New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit bucks fed diets containing Daliumguineense leaf meal.
  • To evaluate the serum biochemical characteristics of adult NZW rabbit bucks fed diets containing Daliumguineense leaf meal.

1.3     Justification of the study

            Althoughrabbitscan comfortably utilize forages, Daliumguineense (Icheku) is not one of the known forages used in feeding rabbits. The known forages like Calopogonium mucunoides, Centrosemapubescens, Tridax procumbens, Panicum maximum and Gomphrena spp.used in feeding rabbits (Ezea et al., 2014)are usually scarce during the dry season, while the leaves of Daliumguineense are seen flourishing in the bush during this season. Also, it will be a step in the right direction to explore the acclaimed potentials of Daliumguineense (Besong et al., 2016) in rabbit production. This study will not only try to harness the foliage resource of Daliumguineense for use in rabbit feeding but will also determine its effect on adult New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, with reference to their haematological and serum biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, this study will increase awareness for rabbit farming, which has been described to be emergent in developing countries like Nigeria (Iwuji et al., 2017a), and the results will be of great value to rabbit farmers.

 

 

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