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Educational technology is a field of study that investigates the process of analyzing, designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating the instructional environment and learning materials in order to improve teaching and learning. It is important to keep in mind that the purpose of educational technology (also referred to as instructional technology) is to improve education. It is therefore important to define the goals and needs of education first and then use all knowledge, including technology, to design the most effective learning environment for students (Kurt, 2015).

With the increase need aimed at solving educational problems and concerns, which might include motivation, discipline, the drop-out rate, school violence, basic skills, critical thinking, and the whole list of educational concerns; there has been an ever increasing tendency to develop innovative solutions to learning difficulties, thus, giving birth to graphic materials in learning.

Definition of Graphic Materials

Graphic materials are materials used for instruction characterized by their vivid nature, can be clearly described and are able to effectively present message in which it is designed for.

According to Achuonye (2004), graphic materials are arts by which we express ideas in lines, pictures, sketches, and diagrams; it includes materials which inculcate facts and ideas clearly and succinctly through a combination of drawing, words and pictures.

Categories of Graphic Materials

Graphical materials used in instruction can be categorized into the following;

  1. Graphs
  2. Charts
  3. Drawings
  4. Maps and globes
  5. Posters
  6. Diagrams
  7. Cartoons and comics
  8. Pictures



  1. Graphs


Graphs are instructional materials which represent numerical data. Graphs also illustrate relationships among units of data and trends in the data. Graphs could be produced from tabular charts, or could be easily made through computer spreadsheet applications, such as Microsoft Excel (Chavez, 2015).

Most of the numerical information are represented in graphs. These masses of complex statistical data are accurately presented in graphs so that even an unsophisticated reader can conveniently understand. Graphs are mostly used in mathematics and science (Achuonye, 2004). Graphs exists in different forms including line graphs, bar graphs, pictographs, and pie graphs.

  1. Line Graphs. These are used frequently in plotting relationships between changes in a set of data, usually over a period of time.

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