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EFFECTS OF EDUCATION FINANCING ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study inspected the connection between education financing and financial economic growth in Nigeria utilizing time series and secondary data from 1981 to 2018, sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), and the World Bank. Significant measurable apparatuses were utilized in investigating the connections between these factors. Stationarity attributes of the factors were tested utilizing the Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) procedure on Eviews. The relationships between education financing, and economic growth were test through Ordinary Least Square analysis and Granger Causality test. The study had two hypothesis and its population was Nigeria.  Several similar literatures were reviewed to aid in the analysis of our data. The discoveries show that education financing has no causal connection with economic growth. The outcome additionally demonstrated that education financing has a negative and inconsequential relationship with economic growth. The examination credited these discoveries to the way that education financing during the time of study was twisted by superfluous factors, for example, strategy inefficiencies, poor financing, and funds misappropriation, and so forth. The investigation suggests that in accordance with global norms, the educational sector of Nigeria requires an institutional change as far as strategy detailing, execution and tracking finances. Likewise, need must be given to other genuine causal elements to economic growth.

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title Page                                                                                                                       ii

Declaration                                                                                                                    iii

Approval                                                                                                                       iv

Dedication                                                                                                                     v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                         vi

Abstract                                                                                                  vii

Table of Content                                                                                                           viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                xi

List of Figures                                                                                                              xii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study                                                                                           1

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem                                                                                             2

1.3 Research Questions                                                                                                   3

1.4 Objectives of the Study                                                                                             3

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study                                                                                            4

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                                          4

1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study                                                                          5

1.8 Definition of Terms                                                                                                  5

1.9 Organisation of the study                                                                                         5

 

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Introduction                                                                                                          6

2.2 Conceptual Framework                                                                                        7

2.3Theoretical Framework                                                                                         13

2.4 Review of Empirical Studies                                                                               14

2.5Summary of Review                                                                                             17

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.2 Research Design                                                                                                  19

3.3Method of Data Collection                                                                                   19

3.4Method of Data Analysis                                                                                     19

3.5 Model Specification                                                                                            20

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Introduction                                                                                                      21

4.2 Data Analysis                                                                                                   21

4.3 Test of Hypothesis                                                                                           23

4.4 Discussion of Findings                                                                                    24

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary of Findings                                                                                     25

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                                      25

5.3 Recommendation                                                                                            26

5.4 Suggestion for Further Research                                                                    26

REFERENCE                                                                                       28

APPENDIX                                                                                                    32

TURNITIN REPORT                                                                       56

 

LIST OF TABLES                                                        

4.1: Unit root Test                                                                                    21

4.2: Multiple Regression Analysis                                                            22

4.3: P-value Test                                                                                       23

4.4: Granger Causality Test                                                                      24

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The Quality of education in Nigeria has been a major cause of concern for the people. Most government schools are massively underfunded, which has created an inconducive learning environment, which consists of, poor educational infrastructure, lack of learning materials, and underqualified teachers. Beyond this, a massive number of children in the country do not have access to an education.  As indicated by the UNICEF yearly report of 2019, there are about 12.9 million children of elementary age, who are as of now are out of school. Net Attendance Rate (NAR) was more terrible among young girls (58.8%) contrasted with their young boys (62.2%). An expected 2.9 million school-matured kids need training centred on compassionate help. Regardless of a critical increment in net enrolment rates lately, it is assessed that 10.5 million kids are out of school in Nigeria. Expanded enrolment rates have likewise made difficulties in guaranteeing quality education and acceptable learning accomplishment, as assets are spread all the more meagrely, over a developing number of students. A major macroeconomic goal of every nation, is to improve the level of economic growth by maximising output. Education is vital because it has a positive effect on human capital, which leads to an increase in productivity and an elevated level of economic growth. Human capital can be fundamentally explained as any skill or knowledge that makes an individual more productive. An educated workforce will be able to increase productivity because, it will be inclined to avoid unhealthy practices and habits that hinder maximum productivity. Education improves health, productivity and access to paid employment.

(Anyanwu et el, 1997). The quality of education and training of labor in a country, is a key determinant, on how developed the economy of the nation is and the its level of economic growth. Studies have shown correlations between human capital and level of economic growth. According to the human development index of 2018, which measured economic productivity and also human capital by combining indexes of education and health in Human Development Index, showed that, there is a positive links between human capital and economic output.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM.

The Nigerian economy vigorously relies upon oil exports. With worldwide oil costs plummeting, the Finance Minister Zainab Ahmed expressed in March of 2020 that the current year's record 10.59 trillion-naira ($29.42bn) financial plan would be cut by around 15 percent. At that point, she said the underlying expected oil cost of $57 a barrel would be diminished to a most dire outcome imaginable of $30 a barrel. Due to this massive decline in oil price, the need to diversify the economy is greater than ever.

To solve this problem, the government will have to make education a priority. The Keynesian Theory suggests that public expenditure should have a positive effect on economic growth. Consequently, education financing should have a correlation with sustainable economic growth.  Iyoha and Itesde (2003) support this statement by regarding the human factor and level of education as the first and key determinants of a country’s level of economic development.

The Nigerian government has borderline ignored the educational sector. Nigeria has one of the lowest expenditure commitments to education in Africa and by implication the world. In 2022, education accounted for 5.2% of the National Budget. UNESCO’s benchmark for education is 26% of the annual national budget and Nigeria has consistently fallen short of this requirement as it allocated 10.7% in 2016, 6% in 2017, 7.1% in 2018 and 5.9% in 2019 and 5.2% of the 2020 budget has been allocated to education, of which approximately 85.2% of the total allocation accounts for recurrent expenditure (Ciuci Consulting, 2020).

The outcomes of lacking financing of instructive area can't be over accentuated. The inadequate funding of education sector which reflects in the area of poor state infrastructural facilities, irregularities of teacher’s remuneration, inadequate staffing etc. has resulted to intermittent strikes by some unions including the Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU), Academic Staff Union of Polytechnics (ASUP) and Non-Academic Staff Union of Universities. This scenario has the ability to increase the rate of illiteracy in the country and reduce the marginal productivity of workers. Therefore, to break out of the vicious circle, there is need to ascertain education impacts on skills and competencies that is central to human development and enhanced worth of life, transporting wide variety benefits to both individuals and societies.

1.3    RESEARCH QUESTION.

The following research question will guide the study:

  1. Is there a relationship between education financing and the level of economic growth in Nigeria?
  2. Is there a causal relationship between education financing and economic growth in Nigeria?

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.

The aim of the study is to investigate the impact of education financing on economic growth In Nigeria. The study specifically sought to achieve these objectives:

  1. To investigate if there is a causal link between expenditure on education and economic growth.
  2. To determine the nature of the relationship between education financing and economic growth in Nigeria.

1.5  STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS.  

h0: There is no causal relationship between education financing and economic growth in Nigeria.

𝒉𝟏: There is causal relationship between education financing and economic growth in Nigeria.

1.6 SIGINIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.

Nigeria is the most populated nation in Africa and one of the most populated in the world. The country also has very high illiteracy rate and a regressing economy. In order to boost and create a sustainable economy, the level of human capital in the country has to improve. This could be achieved by investing heavily in the educational sector.

This study will be of importance to policy makers because, it will provide them with information on the impact of education on economic growth and as such aid in policy formulation.

The study could also beneficial to educational authorities and administrators, as it will help propel reforms and transformation where necessary.

1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY.

The research is basically for the economy of Nigeria. The study dwelt mainly on the education financing of Nigeria. Other variables were introduced as may be required at a particular point in time. The time frame for the study ranged from 1980 – 2018.

1.8 DEFINTION OF TERMS.

  • Economic Growth: This is an increase in the production of goods and services in a country over a specific period of time. It is usual measured in terms of nominal or real gross domestic product.
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This is the overall monetary value of all the goods and services produced in a country over a specific period of time. GDP is usually calculated on an annual on quarterly basis.
  • Education financing: This refers to the amount allocated by the federal government for education. This covers any expenses by or on schools, universities and other public educational institutions. Education financing is divided into recurrent and capital expenditure.

    1.9    ORGANISATION OF THE STUDY. 

This study is arranged in five chapters. Following this introductory chapter, chapter two provides the literature review and the theoretical framework. Chapter three specifies the research methodology used in achieving the objectives of the study. Chapter four provides the analysis of the empirical results. Chapter five is the conclusion of the study which provides a summary of the major results, reaches a conclusion based on the findings. It will also identify policy implications of the findings and provide policy recommendations.

 

 

Attached Files

EFFECTS OF EDUCATION FINANCING ON ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.docx
THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE FIGHT AGAINST HUMAN RIGHT ABUSE
PRODUCTION OF ALKALI USING LOCAL RAW MATERIAL (PALM INFORESCENCE)

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