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ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY USED BY FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA.docx

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was the factors that influence farmers’ choice of adaptation measures and identify adaptation methods to climate change in Nigeria using Akwa Ibom State as a case study. The data was collected from 160 sample households using a survey questionnaire and was analyzed using both descriptive statistics and econometric methods. Multinomial logit model (MNL) was used to identify factors influencing farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate change and variability.

The adaptation strategies considered in the MNL model analysis were crop variety, improve crop and livestock, soil and water conservation practices and irrigation. The result from the multinomial logit analysis showed that age, family size, farm income, farm size, distance to the farm, distance to the market, access to credit, livestock holding (TLU), farm to farm extension and access to climate information are significant factors influencing to farmers’ adaptation strategies. The basic barriers to climate change adaptation on the farmers’ side are lack of knowledge, lack of capital, lack of sufficient land and lack of information. Therefore, future policy should focus on awareness creation on climate change to adaptation through different ways such as mass media and extensions, encouraging informal social networks, improving the availability of credit and enhancing research on the use of new crop varieties are more suited in different agro-ecological zones.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the study 

Agriculture is the dominant sector of the economy in most of the least developing countries. Nigeria is one of the developing counties in which agriculture is the main source of the economy. It contributed 41.6 per cent to GDP, 60 per cent for employment and 80 per cent for export earnings. This sector is expected to have a base and primary determinant for GTP. In line with this environmental conservation, it plays a great role in sustainable economic growth and development. The issue of climate change stands at the heart of this transformation agenda. Currently, the issue of climate is one of the key agendas worldwide. Nigeria is highly vulnerable to climate change and low capacity to adapt and perceive. Climate change is a natural phenomenon that influences agricultural production and negative effect on social and economic activities and leads to food insecurity in particular (MoFED, 2010).

According to IPCC (2007), Africa is one of the regions that will be hard hit by the impact of climate change like increasing in temperature and reduction in rainfall. Agricultural production and food security in many African countries could be affected by climate change and variability. By 2020 some countries rain-fed agriculture could be reduced by up to 50 per cent, with smallholders being the most affected. The impact of climate change could be reducing the economic growth in some parts of Africa and these effects are expected to get worse. This implies that a reduction in agriculture production of the smallholder farmers and would further adversely affect food security. To sustain current levels of food production and to meet future challenges smallholder farmers` may have to respond to the impact of climate change using adaptation strategies. (ibid)

Climate change affects all aspects of economic growth, especially in the least developing countries. To reduce the impact of climate change and enhance food security, adaptation measures are urgently required. The process of adaptation options is needed to be location, integrated and flexible. This climate change affects all agricultural sectors in a multitude of ways. For example, changing weather patterns such as heavy floods and storms make agricultural production low and lead to extreme events of poverty and slow down economic development. In general, there is a relationship between climate vulnerability, poverty and food insecurity (FAO, 2011).

Moreover, adaptation is critical and necessary in developing countries, especially in Nigeria where the fact that vulnerability is high. Most people of livelihoods and living standards are affected by the impact of climate change. Farmers with better knowledge and information on climate change and agronomic practices enable to use adaptation methods to cope up with changes in climate and other socioeconomic conditions (Nhemachena & Hassan 2007). A better understanding of the local dimensions of climatic change is also essential to develop appropriate adaptation measures that can mitigate the adverse impact of climate change. Therefore, awareness of the potential benefits of adaptation is an important issue.

According to Deressa et al. (2009), increasing temperature and rainfall variability in different parts of Nigeria adversely affected the agricultural production of the rural household farmers. To minimize the impact of climate change on stallholder farmers’, adaptation strategy is a vital instrument. The main critical points such as social, economic, technology and environmental trends are able smallholder farmer’s to perceive and adapt to climate change. In addition, knowledge by itself on the adaptation method and factors affecting farmers’ choice of the adaptation strategies are enhancing efforts directly towards tackling the impact of climate change. (ibid)

By understanding all of these facts, effort should focus on finding mechanisms in which smallholder farmers can reduce these problems and improve efforts to strengthen smallholder farmers’ adaptation to climate change. Generally, it is believed that the adaptation strategy of smallholders on agriculture to climate change is imperative to enhance the resilience of agricultural sectors.

Therefore, this study intended to identify smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change and variability’s by taking Akwa Ibom State as a case study.

1.2. Statement of the problem

Agriculture is the major driver of economic growth, especially in developing countries. Nigeria is one of the least developing countries in which the majority of its population depend on the agriculture sector.  Rising agricultural production at the national level leads to improve overall economic growth and development. However, current climate change has become a serious threat to sustainable economic growth (Gebreegziabher et al., 2012).

The impacts of climate change have been adversely affecting economic growth. These impacts affect all economic sensitive sectors, especially the agriculture sector.  Nigeria is a poor country and its economy is highly dependent on agriculture which had failed to meet the growing food demand.  This is due to the fact that negative effect of climate changes on agricultural production (World Bank, 2007). Moreover, According to Deressa (2007), Nigerian agriculture sector is negatively affected by climatic related disasters with drought and flood being the major ones.

Adaptation is an essential strategy to enable farmers to cope with the adverse effect of climate change and variability which in turn increase the agricultural production of the poor farm households (Yesuf et al., 2008). Similarly, knowledge of the adaptation methods on the side of smallholder farmers may make it better to tackle the challenge of climate change (Deressa et al., 2009).

Climate change is an unexpected impact because it is a natural phenomenon that varies with location, socio-economic and environmental conditions. The capacity to adapt to climate change is unequal across and within societies. This fact implies that the adaptation measures at micro-level farm households are important to get the truth and appropriate policies. According to Maddison (2007), there is a difference in the propensity of farmers living in different locations to adapt. Farmers in different areas or agricultural zone have unequal propensity and capacity to climate change impact and adaptation. According to Admassie et al., (2008) in-depth study on vulnerability and adaptation should continue. To address this studying one specific site area is appropriate. Therefore, the researcher tried to address this gap of knowledge by studying a single state-level case study of adaptation strategies to climate change.

Some researchers are done on climate-related issues in Nigeria but most of them are focused on the farmers of Nile Basin as a case study (Deressa et al., 2010; Rengler et al., 2009; Hassan et al., 2008 and Yesuf et al., 2008). Their findings are interesting to make policy intervention at the micro-level especially for the farmers who are similar to the socio-economic and climatic condition of the Nile Basin. But a one size fits all recommendation is inappropriate given the difference in agro-ecologies. Since adaptation is a local effort, therefore the adaptation method differs within the community and even within individuals. According to Fussel (2007), tailoring adaptation practices to specific societies or communities may make it possible to offset the adverse impact of climate change.

Therefore, a better understanding of the local dimensions of climate change is important to develop appropriate adaptation measures and appropriate policies. Akwa Ibom State is the district central Zone of Tigrai, which is vulnerable to climate change. In this study area, the impact of climate change is adversely affecting agriculture. The existence of warming and rainfall variety leads to reducing the agricultural production of the smallholder farmers. Therefore, the area is seriously affected by climate change and weather variability. As to the knowledge of the researcher, no earlier study was conducted on the climate change adaptation strategies of smallholder farmers in this study area. Hence, considering this knowledge gap, the researcher would study the local level of smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change in Akwa Ibom State.

1.2.1. Research Questions

The study was attempted to address the following questions:

  1. What are the determinant factors that influence farmers’ choice of adaptation methods to climate change in Adwa wereda?
  2. What kinds of adaptation methods are the smallholder farmers’ response to climate change in Adwa wereda?
  3. What are policies implications from the finding of the study?

1.3. Objective of the study

1.3.1. General objective of the study

The general objective of this study is to determine the factors that influence smallholder farmers’ choice of adaptation method and identify adaptation strategies used by farmers in response to climate change and variability in Nigeria using Akwa Ibom State as a case study.

1.3.2. Specific objective of the study

  1. To determine factors that influence farmers’ choice of adaptation strategies to climate change in Akwa Ibom State.
  2. To identify adaptation strategies used by farmers in response to climate change and variability in Akwa Ibom State.
  3. To propose some policy implications (recommendations) based on the findings of the study.

1.4. Significance of the study

Purposely this research would intend to study the smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change in Akwa Ibom State. This study was conducted at the micro-level so that it is very interesting to use as guideline documents for further research in this study area and to the same climatic, socioeconomic and geographical areas.  In addition, it may provide a significant contribution to the local and national government, NGOs and other bilateral donors in an effort to minimize the impact of climate change design of policy at the local level.

1.5. Scope and limitation of the study

This study was carried out on smallholder farmers in the Akwa Ibom State district central Zone of the Tigrai region. It was conducted on smallholder farmers’ adaptation strategies to climate change by taking a case study approach in order to make a detailed analysis. The major limitation of this study was the inclusion of only four climate change adaptation strategies in the model and the sample size was also not large because of financial and time constraints.

Attached Files

ADAPTATION STRATEGIES TO CLIMATE VARIABILITY USED BY FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA.docx
ADOPTION OF E-PROCUREMENT SYSTEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES A NIGERIAN PUBLIC SECTOR PERSPECTIVE.docx
ACCOUNTABILITY AND CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC ORGANIZATION (A CASE STUDY OF ISIALA MBANO L.G.A. IMO STATE).docx

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